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Clinical Features of Babies Born to Mothers with Oligohydramnios: A Two Years' Experience

Atiye Fedakâr, Selahattin Semiz and Nurcan Peker

Aim: Oligohydramnios or decreased amount of amniotic fluid volume is seen frequently with post-maturity and major abnormalities. It accompanies a wide range of reproductive disorders including anomalies of fetus and disorders of mother, fetus and placenta. Decreased amniotic fluid volume is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The current study aimed to present the clinical features of babies born to mothers with Oligohydramnios who were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) in a 2-year period and a literature review was also presented. Materials and method: Babies admitted to NICU of our hospital between July 31, 2012 and July 31, 2013 and born to mothers with a diagnosis of Oligohydramnios were included in the study. The diagnosis of Oligohydramnios was based on Phelan’s AF index assessment. The diagnosis for hospitalization, birth weight, type of birth, 5th minute Apgar score, week of gestation, gender, and history of some diseases in mother that can predispose to oligohydramnios such as early membrane rupture (EMR), hypertension, diabetes, collagen tissue disease and drug use were analyzed. All patients underwent an abdominal ultrasonography and premature babies and babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes had routine echocardiography performed by a pediatric cardiologist. Findings: A total of 963 patients were admitted to NICU between July 31, 2012 and July 31, 2013. Twenty-five (2, 5%) of those patients were born to mothers with oligohydramnios. Sixteen were premature babies (30-36 weeks) and nine were term patients with 13 boys and 12 girls. Twenty four (96%) of those patients were delivered by emergency cesarean section due to fetal distress. Mean birth weight was 2490 ± 1265 g (4120-1430) and mean duration of hospitalization was 11, 4 ± 0, 7 days. The fifth minute Apgar score was 7.28 ± 1. We applied antenatal corticosteroid therapy 13 cases under gestational ages 34 weeks. Pneumothorax developed in two patients and there was no mortality. Result: Oligohydramnios is a very serious clinical condition affecting the perinatal mortality and morbidity. The cases should be evaluated multi-dimensionally since it causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and pulmonary hypoplasia, increased risk of caesarean delivery for fetal distress, low Apgar score in addition to creating grounds for many congenital abnormalities. Followed closely of fetal intrapartum monitoring and good neonatal care support is necessary for optimum perinatal outcome.