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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Low Birth Weight among Newborns Delivered at Public Hospital, in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia

Nunemo Mengistu, Debo Daniel, Egata Gudina

Back ground: Low birth weight (LBW) has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams including 2,499 grams irrespective of gestational age. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chance of infant healthy growth and development and a primary determinant of infant mortality risk. LBW is either the result of preterm birth or due to restricted fetal growth.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of Low Birth Weight and associated factors among newborns delivered in public hospital facilities, in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia from March 30-June 30, 2010 E.C.
Method and materials: A hospital-based cross sectional study design was conducted on 282 mothers who give birth in three Hospitals in Hadiya Zone March 30 to April 30, 2018. Data was collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data was entered in to Epi data version 3.1, then export to SPSS version 20 for data cleaning and analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to see the association between the outcome variable and explanatory variables. The candidate variable for association (PV<=0.5) was inter by backward multivariate logistic regression and
predictors was determined.
Result: Among the total 282 respondents, 277.16(5.7%) were MUAC<17 cm, 205(72.7%) respondents took less than four feedings per day and 127(45%) feed irregularly during pregnancy. Respondents who were not supplied by additional feeding during pregnancy were 69(24.5%). Thirty seven (13%) had Less than 37 week of gestational age during delivery of mothers and 81(28.7%) respondents had unknown gestational age. The new born babies mean birth weight was 2981.4 gm (SD ± 607.5). In this particular study the prevalence of low birth weight was 49(17.4%). In the
bivariate &multivariate logistic regression model mother had less than 37 weeks (AOR, 14.978 (4.685, 47.887), mother without additional food (AOR, 3.226(1.556, 6.686), mother had irregular meal pattern (AOR, 2.078 (1.034, 5.634), were identified independent predictor of low birth weight.
Conclusion and recommendation: The prevalence of low birth weight in this study was high. Absence of nutritional counselling at ANC, irregular pattern of meal, low additional food during pregnancy and preterm gestational age were predictor of low birth weight. Advising on additional food and regular meal pattern are mandatory for decreasing low birth weight.